Absolute Difference of Measure A mathematical formula that measures "disparity between a group rate and a specified reference point.
What are the social Socioeconomic determinants of health of population health, and how can healthcare providers reduce the socioeconomic impacts of community disparities? Thinkstock Financially and clinically successful population health management programs must take much more into account than what happens to a patient while she is sitting on the exam table.
Helping patients to overcome socioeconomic barriers to better health by spending more on community improvements can reduce downstream medical costs, found the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation in a recent study. States with a higher ratio of social-to-healthcare spending from to saw better patient outcomes.
A 20 percent increase in the median social-to-health spending ratio was equivalent to 85, fewer adults with obesity and more thanadults with mental illness, the study added, significantly reducing the associated spending on these conditions and their comorbidities.
But what are the most impactful social determinants of health, how can providers identify areas of opportunity in their communities, and how can they work with their partners to reduce the negative impacts of socioeconomic insecurities? Few healthcare organizations have the resources or political clout Socioeconomic determinants of health truly eradicate the larger economic, social, and historical constraints that have led to certain groups experiencing long-term disparities and inequities.
But the good news is that population health management programs that address small, manageable pieces of the great American puzzle can successfully change many lives for the better. Breaking down the social determinants of health into their component parts can help providers assess their community challenges and implement targeted initiatives that improve the health and wellbeing of patients experiencing socioeconomic disadvantages.
Safe and secure housing Housing stability is a key indicator of socioeconomic status, affecting both rural and urban populations. For most individuals, housing is the single greatest monthly expense, says the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Equity.
Successfully making rent or mortgage payments can be particularly difficult for low income individuals who must spend a larger proportion of their earnings on securing their housing situation.
Unstable housing arrangements can increase emotional, physical, and social stress, present problems with properly storing medications, make it difficult to consistently access healthcare, and lead to gaps or changes in schooling for children that may adversely affect their educational development.
Healthcare providers can also more easily follow up with patients when they have a stable address and contact information, Johns Hopkins adds. Providers can work to reduce the negative impacts of housing instability and homelessness by partnering with supportive housing programs geared towards preventing loss of housing and providing options for recently evicted or homeless individuals and families.
The Department of Housing and Urban Development offers grants to community organizations looking to create supportive housing to supplement their efforts, while the National Coalition for the Homeless maintains directories of existing supportive housing projects, shelters, and transitional housing initiatives at the local level.
How to Get Started with a Population Health Management Program English language proficiency and cultural understanding Most healthcare in the United States is conducted in English, despite the growing cultural diversity that permeates the vast majority of communities.
There are currently 41 million native Spanish speakers in the country, in addition to 3. Tagalog, Vietnamese, Hindustani, Arabic, and Korean are also spoken by millions, leaving healthcare providers with the task of ensuring that non-native English speakers can understand directions and instructions that are often very complex, even for those fluent in the language.
Inmore than 46 million people did not speak English as a primary language, and 21 million additional residents were not wholly fluent. Bymore than These patients were less likely than others to receive recommended preventive care, more likely to struggle with their medications, and required more visits to the office to meet their needs.
US Census Bureau Interpreter services can be costly, especially for uncommon languages.
Social Determinants of Health: How Social and Economic Factors Affect Health 3 While the previous scenario is fictional, unfortunately it is all too plausible. The determinants of health include: the social and economic environment, Individuals are unlikely to be able to directly control many of the determinants of health. These determinants—or things that make people healthy or not—include the above factors, and many others. What are the social determinants of population health, and how can healthcare providers reduce the socioeconomic impacts of community disparities? Source: Thinkstock Financially and clinically successful population health management programs must take much more into account than what happens to a patient while she is sitting on the exam table.
They also may not fully transcend the cultural barriers experienced by non-native English speakers in the healthcare setting.
And family members who act as translators can increase tensions, reduce the feeling of confidentiality, and present legal privacy concerns for providers, says Mayo Clinic dermatologist Michael M.
The advent of telehealth and mHealth translation services has made it somewhat easier to overcome language barriers. Health literacy and educational level In addition to ensuring that patients and providers are using the same words, organizations must ensure that those words make sense to individuals with varying levels of health literacy and educational attainment.
Adults with higher levels of education are less likely to engage in risky health behaviors, says AHRQ. And there are dramatic differences in life expectancy strongly correlated with high school and college graduation rates.
By age 25, adults without a high school diploma are expected to die nine years earlier than their graduate peers. Life expectancy among individuals with less than 12 years of education has fallen by more than 3 years for men and 5 years for women between and Individuals who secure stable employment are more likely to live in neighborhoods with access to fresh food choices, higher quality schools for their children, and lower rates of violence and crime.
High school graduates are also less likely to be obese, to use tobacco, to be uninsured, to access preventive care and cancer screenings, and to exercise an appropriate amount, the CDC notes. Providers can help to develop health literacy in patients, no matter what degrees they hold, by training their clinicians in how to communicate clearly and effectively while reducing stress and defensive anxiety in the consult room.
Treating individuals with kindness, patience, and respect while using simple language to explain health issues can help to ensure communication is achieved.
Overcoming Patient Barriers to Chronic Disease Management Transportation access If patients cannot physically get to their appointments or access acute care in times of need, they cannot benefit from even the most robust and effective population health management program.
Missed appointments and no-shows cost the healthcare system billions of dollars each year. With a mean no-show rate of close to 20 percent in an average clinic, providers have a significant financial incentive to improve these figures. Transportation problems are only one small part of the reason why patients might skip out on their scheduled visits, but ensuring access to a lift is one of the easier issues to address.
Medicaid provides non-emergency transportation services to beneficiaries who do not have access to — or cannot utilize — cars, trains, or buses to get to their medical appointments.
The advent of ridesharing services has also revolutionized the routine healthcare transport environment.Throughout the world, wealth and income are becoming more concentrated. Growing evidence suggests that the distribution of income–in addition to the absolute standard of living enjoyed by the poor–is a key determinant of population health.
A large gap between rich people and poor people leads to higher mortality through the breakdown of social cohesion. Throughout the world, wealth and income are becoming more concentrated.
Growing evidence suggests that the distribution of income–in addition to the absolute standard of living enjoyed by the poor–is a key determinant of population health.
A large gap between rich people and poor people leads to higher mortality through the breakdown of social cohesion. Socioeconomic determinants of health: towards a national research program and a policy and intervention agenda Queensland University of Technology, School of Public Health, Ausinfo, Canberra.
The determinants of health include: the social and economic environment, Individuals are unlikely to be able to directly control many of the determinants of health.
These determinants—or things that make people healthy or not—include the above factors, and many others. Social determinants of health are shaped by the distribution of money, power, and resources throughout local communities, nations, and the world . Socioeconomic Gradient in Health This term refers to the stepwise fashion health outcomes improve as socioeconomic position improves.
Social Determinants of Health: How Social and Economic Factors Affect Health 3 While the previous scenario is fictional, unfortunately it is all too plausible.