Introduction There are many ancient symbols that evoke images of the Middle East in people's minds. Often, people recognize the symbol, but no longer know anything about its original significance. This page provides an overview of selected symbols, their meaning, and their history.
Ruins of Dougga's World Heritage Site.
Agricultural communities in the humid coastal plains of central Tunisia then were ancestors of today's Berber tribes. It was believed in ancient times that Africa was originally populated by Gaetulians and Libyans, both nomadic peoples.
According to the Roman historian Sallustthe demigod Hercules died in Spain and his polyglot eastern army was left to settle the land, with some migrating to Africa. Persians went to the West and intermarried with the Gaetulians and became the Numidians. The Medes settled and were known as Mauri, later Moors.
The translated meaning of Numidian is Nomad and indeed the people were semi-nomadic until the reign of Masinissa of the Massyli tribe. The city of Carthage was founded in the 9th century BC by Phoenicians.
The settlers of Carthage brought their culture and religion from Phoenicia, now present-day Lebanon and adjacent areas. Tanit's symbol, a simple female figure with extended arms and long dress, is a popular icon found in ancient sites. The founders of Carthage also established a Tophetwhich was altered in Roman times.
A Carthaginian invasion of Italy led by Hannibal during the Second Punic Warone of a series of wars with Romenearly crippled the rise of Roman power. Ruins of Carthage During the Roman period, the area of what is now Tunisia enjoyed a huge development. The economy, mainly during the Empire, boomed: Called the Granary of the Empire, the area of actual Tunisia and coastal Tripolitaniaaccording to one estimate, produced one million tons of cereals each year, one-quarter of which was exported to the Empire.
Additional crops included beans, figs, grapes, and other fruits. By the 2nd century, olive oil rivaled cereals as an export item. In addition to the cultivations and the capture and transporting of exotic wild animals from the western mountains, the principal production and exports included the textiles, marble, wine, timber, livestock, pottery such as African Red Slipand wool.
The Roman amphitheater in El Djembuilt during the first half of the 3rd century AD There was even a huge production of mosaics and ceramics, exported mainly to Italy, in the central area of El Djem where there was the second biggest amphitheater in the Roman Empire.
Berber bishop Donatus Magnus was the founder of a Christian group known as the Donatists. Founded init dates in its present form largely from the Aghlabid period 9th century.
It is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb. Sometime between the second half of the 7th century and the early part of the 8th century, Arab Muslim conquest occurred in the region. They founded the first Islamic city in Northwest Africa, Kairouan.
The transition from a Latin-speaking Christian Berber society to a Muslim and mostly Arabic-speaking society took over years the equivalent process in Egypt and the Fertile Crescent took years and resulted in the final disappearance of Christianity and Latin in the 12th or 13th centuries. The majority of the population were not Muslim until quite late in the 9th century; a vast majority were during the 10th.
Also, some Tunisian Christians emigrated; some richer members of society did so after the conquest in and others were welcomed by Norman rulers to Sicily or Italy in the 11th and 12th centuries — the logical destination because of the year close connection between the two regions.
Communities of Tunisian Christians would still exist in Tunisia up to the 14th century. The Almohads initially ruled over Tunisia through a governor, usually a near relative of the Caliph.
Despite the prestige of the new masters, the country was still unruly, with continuous rioting and fighting between the townsfolk and wandering Arabs and Turks, the latter being subjects of the Muslim Armenian adventurer Karakush. Also, Tunisia was occupied by Ayyubids between and and again between and Around they succeeded in extending their rule over the whole of Tunisia until they were crushed by Almohad troops in Tunisia remained part of the Almohad state, until when the son of Abu Hafs declared himself independent.
During the reign of the Hafsid dynastyfruitful commercial relationships were established with several Christian Mediterranean states. Ottoman Tunisia In the last years of the Hafsid dynastySpain seized many of the coastal cities, but these were recovered by the Ottoman Empire.
Initially under Turkish rule from Algiers, soon the Ottoman Porte appointed directly for Tunis a governor called the Pasha supported by janissary forces.
Welcome to Kyocera. All Business Operations of Kyocera like Fine Ceramic Components, Microelectronic Packages, Fiber Optic Components and Ultra High Vacuum Products, Thermal Printheads, Colour LCD, Automotive Components, Cutting Tools, Solar Electric Systems, Printer and Multifunctionals, Kitchen and Office Products and Digital Cameras are presented on this website. Technical Review Middle East is the leading meeting point that connects vendors and investors with stakeholders in the Middle East industries, business and government. Since June , Thomas & Betts (T&B) is a Member of the ABB Group. ABB is a leading power and automation technology group, active in more than countries .
Before long, however, Tunisia became in effect an autonomous province, under the local Bey. Under its Turkish governors, the BeysTunisia attained virtual independence. The Hussein dynasty of Beys, established inlasted until During this era the governing councils controlling Tunisia remained largely composed of a foreign elite who continued to conduct state business in the Turkish language.
Attacks on European shipping were made by corsairsprimarily from Algiers, but also from Tunis and Tripoliyet after a long period of declining raids the growing power of the European states finally forced its termination.
Under the Ottoman Empire, the boundaries of Tunisia contracted; it lost territory to the west Constantine and to the east Tripoli.Welcome to Middle East Solar Industry Association. Empowering solar across the Middle East. MESIA is a non-proﬁt, non-governmental organization that aims to promote solar power in the Middle East and Northern Africa and organize networking opportunities for solar professionals.
DESERTEC was a large-scale project supported by a foundation of the same name and the consortium Dii (Desertec industrial initiative) created in Germany as a limited liability company ().
The project aimed at creating a global renewable energy plan based on the concept of harnessing sustainable power from sites where renewable sources of energy are more abundant and transferring it through.
Under the terms of the agreement the Central Energy Fund of South Africa and ACWA Power, a leading Saudi Arabian developer, owner, and operator of power generation and water desalination plants will cooperate on the project. Director of Business Development – Middle East and Africa Kristopher has been a full time solar PV professional since Working in multiple facets of the industry over a long career, he has maintained a singular focus .
Green, Energy, Power, Solar, Atlantis, Save, Money, Middle East, Africa. Welcome to Kyocera. All Business Operations of Kyocera like Fine Ceramic Components, Microelectronic Packages, Fiber Optic Components and Ultra High Vacuum Products, Thermal Printheads, Colour LCD, Automotive Components, Cutting Tools, Solar Electric Systems, Printer and Multifunctionals, Kitchen and Office Products and Digital Cameras are presented on this website.