An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse". Aldous Huxleya leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject. Furthermore, Huxley argues that "essays belong to a literary species whose extreme variability can be studied most effectively within a three-poled frame of reference".
By Michael Nielsen One day in the mids, a Moscow newspaper reporter named Solomon Shereshevsky entered the laboratory of the psychologist Alexander Luria.
Shereshevsky's boss at the newspaper had noticed that Shereshevsky never needed to take any notes, but somehow still remembered all he was told, and had suggested he get his memory checked by an expert. Luria began testing Shereshevsky's memory. He began with simple tests, short strings of words and of numbers.
Shereshevsky remembered these with ease, and so Luria gradually increased the length of the strings. But no matter how long they got, Shereshevsky could recite them back.
Fascinated, Luria went on to study Shereshevsky's memory for the next 30 years. Experiments indicated that he had no difficulty reproducing any lengthy series of words whatever, even though these had originally been presented to him a week, a month, a year, or even many years earlier.
In fact, some of these experiments designed to test his retention were performed without his being given any warning fifteen or sixteen years after the session in which he had originally recalled the words.
Yet invariably they were successful. Such stories are fascinating. Memory is fundamental to our thinking, and the notion of having a perfect memory is seductive. At the same time, many people feel ambivalent about their own memory.
Given how central memory is to our thinking, it's natural to ask whether computers can be used as tools to help improve our memory. This question turns out to be highly generative of good ideas, and pursuing it has led to many of the most important vision documents in the history of computing.
A memex is a device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory. In his proposal for the web, Berners-Lee describes the need for his employer the particle physics organization CERN to develop a collective institutional memory, a pool of information to develop which could grow and evolve with the organization and the projects it describes.
These are just a few of the many attempts to use computers to augment human memory. From the memex to the web to wikis to org-mode to Project Xanadu to attempts to make a map of every thought a person thinks: In this essay we investigate personal memory systems, that is, systems designed to improve the long-term memory of a single person.
In the first part of the essay I describe my personal experience using such a system, named Anki. As we'll see, Anki can be used to remember almost anything.
That is, Anki makes memory a choice, rather than a haphazard event, to be left to chance. I'll discuss how to use Anki to understand research papers, books, and much else. And I'll describe numerous patterns and anti-patterns for Anki use.
While Anki is an extremely simple program, it's possible to develop virtuoso skill using Anki, a skill aimed at understanding complex material in depth, not just memorizing simple facts.
The second part of the essay discusses personal memory systems in general. Many people treat memory ambivalently or even disparagingly as a cognitive skill: I'll argue against this point of view, and make a case that memory is central to problem solving and creativity.
Also in this second part, we'll discuss the role of cognitive science in building personal memory systems and, more generally, in building systems to augment human cognition. The essay is unusual in style.
It's not a conventional cognitive science paper, i.Find essays and research papers on Economics at alphabetnyc.com We've helped millions of students since Join the world's largest study community.
Identify the three major types of hospitals by ownership and discuss the differences between the types of hospitals. What are the 5 major positions held in hospital governance? What is the difference between hospital licensure, accreditation and certification? Based on Chapter 9, answer the following questions: Research papers may allow you to cover a topic outside of the general subject matter (such as writing a persuasive research paper about global warming in an English class), while term papers will focus solely on the subject matter discussed in the course.
The money market deals in the lending and borrowing of short-term finance (i.e., for one year or less), while the capital market deals in the lending and borrowing of long-term .
A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah The aim of science is to establish facts, as accurately as possible.
It is therefore crucially important to determine whether an observed phenomenon is real, or whether it’s the result of pure chance.