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Kruglanski November 5, It might seem hard to believe but, according to psychological science, even the most hardened jihadists can be de-radicalized. To understand how it is done involves appreciating how radicalization happens in the first place.
The term is defined as holding and acting on radical attitudes that deviate from accepted norms.
Attitudes, however, are malleable and susceptible to change. Individuals can be radicalized, de-radicalized and even re-radicalized.
It is one thing to observe that de-radicalization can occur, and quite another to understand how it came about. Simply put, de-radicalization depends on three Ns: The first step toward de-radicalization involves recognizing the needs of jihadists, which shape their motives, beliefs and reality.
Often we only see what we want to see and believe what we want to believe. Valid arguments, however strong, are can be utterly unpersuasive if they run counter to our needs. That is why current de-radicalization programs in Muslim countries, or countries with significant Muslim populations, employ much more than theological arguments against violence.
The third step is to recognize that the social network in which militants are embedded is crucial to their radicalization — and de-radicalization. Radicalization occurs in a social context that is shaped by family, friends and charismatic leaders.
De-radicalization cannot take place in a social vacuum, either.
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So what are the obstacles to de-radicalization? Leaders can gain a higher level of personal significance from the organization than foot soldiers.
This can mean they are more resistant to change than their followers. Resistance to de-radicalization may also depend on how much attitude change is necessary. Disavowal of all violence on moral or religious grounds requires a more profound attitudinal change than personal disengagement from violence, which can be done while still condoning it for others.
Similarly, complete rejection of violence is more difficult to embrace than a limited rejection, such as that committed against other Muslims.
In short, it is crucial to determine what kind of de-radicalization is sought and what is realistically possible. With thousands of militants detained in facilities around the globe and thousands more about to return home once the fighting is over, the issue of de-radicalization is more pressing than ever.
There is no better way to respond to this threat, however. De-radicalization of militants is a global imperative that merits our utmost diligence and commitment. It is the quintessential challenge for our time.
Militant Islamist fighters on a tank take part in a military parade along the streets of northern Raqqa province June 30, 36 minutes ago · The reader is cautioned that it is uncertain that further exploration will result in the conversion of unclassified mineralization to Inferred Mineral Resources, the upgrading of .
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