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Although Bernheim did not explicitly talk about virtue, the article shows that his Lehrbuch nonetheless considers self-distanciation a matter of virtuous behavior, targeted at an aim that may not be fully realizable, but ought to be pursued with all possible vigor.
Focusing on some of its most important spokespeople, the paper shows that they start from the historicist presupposition that distance can in principle be overcome by a reconstruction of the original intentions of the framers of the Constitution.
With the help of Hans-Georg Gadamer, who explicitly based his philosophical hermeneutics on the notion of distance, this presupposition will be criticized.
The paper concludes that the originalist and hermeneuticist positions do not mutually exclude each other, but can be synthesized if they are seen as different questions about the same text. The meaning of the Constitution is therefore not given but is dependent on the direction of the questions asked by the interpreter.
From this question-dependency of meaning it follows that interpretation follows the law of acoustics: The spatial metaphor of distance at work in this intuition is thought to provide the basis for the epistemological model appropriate for understanding the nature of historical knowledge.
This results in two claims: This essay discusses the pros and cons of these two claims. It argues that the two claims are indeed the best way to begin our analysis of the relationship between the past and the historical text or representation.
However, we cannot afford to stop there; indeed, we must ask ourselves where the associations we have with the metaphor of temporal distance may, in the end, be misleading. This will enable us to recognize that the notion of distance will, finally, have to yield its prerogatives to that of the notion of function.
Historical writing is functionalist in the sense that the historical text is a substitute for the past discussed in it. That is its function.
The intentionalist alternative to essentialism elaborated in this article successfully clarifies and avoids many standard problems with anachronism. Myth in History, Philosophy of History as Myth: It attempts to show that their conceptions of myth are closely related to their respective assumptions concerning the historical significance of myth and regarding the sense of history more generally.
Historians often say that the micro level casts light on the macro level. In this essay, I propose and clarify six interpretive norms to guide micro-to-macro inferences. I focus on marginal groups and monsters. These are popular cases in social and cultural histories, and yet seem to be unpromising candidates for generalization.
Marginal groups are dismissed by the majority as inferior or ill-fitting; their lives seem intelligible but negligible. Monsters, on the other hand, are somehow incomprehensible to society and treated as such. These will contest our conception of a macro claim.
Second, I identify four risks in making such inferences—and clarify how norms of coherence, challenge, restraint, connection, provocation, and contextualization can manage those risks. My strategy is to analyze two case studies, by Richard Cobb, about a band of violent bandits and a semi-literate provincial terrorist in revolutionary France.
Published inthese studies show Cobb to be an inventive and idiosyncratic historian, who created new angles for studying the micro level and complicated them with his autobiography. Uncertainty is thus inevitable for intellectual historians. But accepting uncertainty is not enough: Then we should report our degree of certainty in our claims.
When we answer empirical questions in intellectual history, we are not telling our readers what happened: For intellectual historians, then, uncertainty is subjective, as discussed by Keynes and Collingwood; the paper thus explores three differences between subjective and objective uncertainty.
Having outlined the theoretical basis of uncertainty, the paper then offers examples from actual research: The concept, however, has remained entirely unexplored in the discipline of history.
Although numerous British historians have noted the prominent position of acceleration in the late-Victorian and Edwardian imagination, these observations have never expanded beyond the realm of rhetorical flourish.
The present paper attempts to build a two-way interdisciplinary bridge between British political history and the theories of social acceleration that have been posited in the social sciences, arguing that both British political historians and acceleration theorists have much to gain from further dialogue.
How Ideas of Feudalism and Secularization Govern the Politics of Time History and Theory 50 OctoberDavis argues that the familiar periodization dividing European history into medieval and modern phases disguises a claim to power as a historical fact.
Periodization thus furnishes one of the most durable conceptual foundations for the usurpation of liberty and the abuse of power. Three limitations of this book are worth mentioning.
It does not address the possibility that answering this question may require breaking with the terms of professional historical inquiry.
|Retired Site | PBS Programs | PBS||Oliver's "Unearthly Neighbors" Chad Oliver, an Anthropologist, wrote particularly plausible novels of First Contact -- a term, after all, which originated in the field of Anthropology.|
|Novel - Wikipedia||Theory Of Marxism And Sports - words The paper that is about to be presented is about how a theory invented by Karl Marx can intertwine with sports as we know it. The Marxist theory mainly affects how people can participate in different sports depending on their class status.|
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Perhaps the question could be answered in terms like those that led Wittgenstein to characterize his Philosophical Investigations as remarks on the natural history of human beings.Free Essays on Oliver Twist Analysis. Use our research documents to help you learn - Sample essay topic, essay writing: Theory Of Marxism And Sports - words The paper that is about to be presented is about how a theory invented by Karl Marx.
Industrial revolution in britain – Сustom Literature essay; Oliver Twist – Сustom Literature essay; Nazi – Сustom Literature essay. Analysis of the Movie, The Insider - The Insider () is a film rife with ethical dilemmas, suspense and controversy.
It is based on a true story related to a episode . Reviews, essays, books and the arts: the leading international weekly for literary culture. American literature is literature written or produced in the United States and its preceding colonies (for specific discussions of poetry and theater, see Poetry of the United States and Theater in the United States).Before the founding of the United States, the British colonies on the eastern coast of the present-day United States were heavily influenced by English literature.
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